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The citadel of the Tsars - Moscow Kremlin

Moscow, Russia, St Basil Cathedral and Kremlin

The Kremlin is the geographical and historical center of Russian capital Moscow. Once there was a settlement on the hill near Borovitski a river that emptied into the river Moscow. The archaeological findings which have been made to drink of the Bronze Age, but not until the eleventh century fortifications were built. First, these walls were made of wood, but in 1376 the walls of the Kremlin were made of stone.

The literal translation of the word kremlin is a fortified citadel within the walls of a city. Many medieval cities in Russia had such a kremlin, but Moscow has become by far the most famous. This was mainly due to the powerful position they occupied. Within the walls of the Kremlin were indeed the main government buildings, churches and monasteries of Moscow. Also is the attended the ruler of Russia, until Peter the Great in 1711 chose a new capital in the form of St. Petersburg.

The limestone walls from the fourteenth were at one point the object to renovation. Ivan III gave this instruction to a group of Italians who specialized in fortifications. Between 1485 and 1516 were parts of the old wall replaced with new walls and towers of brick .

The Kremlin had twenty towers especially the towers at the corners were very impressive. For example the Savior Tower had already been built between 1464 and 1466, but was rebuilt in 1491 by Italian Pietro Antonio Solari. He was an important figure in the renovation of the Kremlin. He designed the four entry gates, the Arsenal Tower and collaborated on the completion of the Palace of Facets. This palace takes its name from the diamond rustica in the facade of limestone. The highlight of the renovation was the bell tower of Ivan the Great (1505-1508).

Around 1470 there was started the Assumption Cathedral, the main church of Moscow. This appeared to be the smallest church in the Russian style, like the dress traversing Church (1484-1488) and Annunciation Cathedral (1484-1489).
Between 1505 and 1508, the Cathedral of Archangel Michael, was built by architect Alivez Novy. This building is both to fit in the Russian tradition and the Italian period of the Kremlin. In the seventeenth century, the brick Church of the Twelve Apostles as part of the patriarchal palace.

Under Catherine the Great, who ruled from 1762, Moscow again became important for St. Petersburg. From her Matvei Kazakov, the follower of neoclassicism, was the command Senate building. In the nineteenth century, under Nicholas I the Great Kremlin Palace (1839-1849) was restored. Architect Konstantin Ton designed a beautiful facade that suited the existing buildings on the side of the river Moscow.

In 1918 Moscow became the capital of the Soviet Union. Some old buildings in the Kremlin were then demolished to make way for new government buildings. A striking building from the Soviet era, was the Congress Palace (1959-1961), and among other was also Pososjkin Michael.